Synapes & Action Potentials

The Nerve Impulse

Chemical Synapse

Transmission Across a Synapse

Sodium-Potassium Exchange

Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathway

Function of the Neuromuscular Junction

Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction

Voltage Gated Channels and the Action Potential

Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon

Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels

Genetics of Bacteria

Rolling Circle Mechanisms of Replication

Bidirectional DNA Replication

Lamda Phage Replication Cycle

Steps in Replication of T4 Phage in E. coli

Specialized Transduction

Bacterial Transformation

Transduction (Generalized)

Conjugation: Transfer of Chromosomal DNA

Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome

Conjugation: Transfer of the F Plasmid

Regulatory Proteins Regulation by Repression

The Lac Operon (Induction)

The Tryptophan Repressor

Combination of Switches – the Lac Operon

Transcription Complex and Enhancers

Bacterial Endospore Formation


Energy & ATP

Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis

Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP

How Glycolysis Works

How the Krebs Cycle Works

How the NAD+ Works

Energy Sources for Prolonged Exercise


B Vitamins

Micturition Reflex

How Prions Arise

Respiratory System

The Pleural Membranes

Alveolar Pressure Changes During Inspiration and Expiration

Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Gas Exchange During Respiration

Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide


Entry of Virus into Host Cell

Mechanism for Releasing Enveloped Viruses

Replication Cycle of a Retrovirus

Replication of a Positive (+) Sense Strand of Lytic RNA Phage

Antiviral Activity of Interferon

HIV Replication

How the HIV Infection Cycle Works


Activation of Complement

Antigenic Determinants (Epitopes)

Immune Response


Antigen Processing

Cytotoxic T-Cell Activity against Target Cells

T-Cell Dependent Antigens

The Immune Response

Monoclonal Antibody Production

Antibody Diversity

Antiviral Activity of Interferon

IgE Mediated (Type 1) Hypersensitivity

Cytotoxic (Type II Hypersensitivity)

Immune Complex Type 3 Hypersensitivity

Delayed (Type IV) Hypersensitivity

Constructing vaccines


Organs of Digestion

Three Phases of Gastric Secretion

Hydrochloric Acid Production… of the Stomach

Reflexes in the Colon

Enzyme Action and the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

Nutrient Density Comparator

Relationship of Nutrient Needs to Age and Gender

Water Content of Foods

Calories in a Sandwich

Hemoglobin & Hemolysis

Hemoglobin Breakdown

Hemolysis and Crenation

Cochlear Structures

Effect of Sound Waves on Cochlear Structures