Genetics of Bacteria

Rolling Circle Mechanisms of Replication

Bidirectional DNA Replication

Lamda Phage Replication Cycle

Steps in Replication of T4 Phage in E. coli

Specialized Transduction

Bacterial Transformation

Transduction (Generalized)

Conjugation: Transfer of Chromosomal DNA

Transposons: Shifting Segments of the Genome

Conjugation: Transfer of the F Plasmid

Regulatory Proteins Regulation by Repression

The Lac Operon (Induction)

The Tryptophan Repressor

Combination of Switches – the Lac Operon

Transcription Complex and Enhancers

Bacterial Endospore Formation



DNA Replication

DNA Replication Fork

How Translation Works

mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)

Protein Synthesis

How Tumor Suppressor Genes Blocks Cell Division

Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

How Nucleotides are Added in DNA Replication

Hershey and Chase Experiment

Meselson and Stahl Experiment

Mutation by Base Substitution

Addition and Deletion Mutations

Thymine Dimers Formation and Repair


Processing of Gene Information – Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes

How Spliceosomes Process RNA

Restriction Endonucleases

Early Genetic Engineering Experiment

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms

Constructing Vaccines

The Ti Plasmid

Cloning a Gene

Steps in Cloning a Gene

Construction of a Plasmid Vector

DNA Probe (DNA hybridization)

Sanger Sequencing


ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Complement Fixation Test

Southern Blot

Polymerase Chain Reaction

رحله رقم 1

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نبتدى الرحلة

figures to carbohydrate and lipid matabolism

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